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Chapter 16 Rings

Up to this point we have studied sets with a single binary operation satisfying certain axioms, but we are often more interested in working with sets that have two binary operations. For example, one of the most natural algebraic structures to study is the integers with the operations of addition and multiplication. These operations are related to one another by the distributive property. If we consider a set with two such related binary operations satisfying certain axioms, we have an algebraic structure called a ring. In a ring we add and multiply elements such as real numbers, complex numbers, matrices, and functions.